Roman and Roman-Byzantine amphorae discovered at Halmyris, Tulcea County
Dorel Paraschiv, Ștefan Honcu
The authors of the presentation discuss the amphorae material discovered at Halmyris – Murighiol, Tulcea County, in the last two decades. The amphorae appears to us like a compact batch that can be divided, in a first stage, into two groups based exclusively on the chronological criterion. Unlike the previously published batches, the following material we aim to examine is much more diverse from a chronological and typological point of view, but also from the perspective of its production areas. We can observe the presence in a high percentage of the amphorae that can be dated chronologically during the 2nd-3rd centuries AD, nevertheless the existence of some rarely types of amphorae found in the province of Moesia Inferior, such as Robinsion 1959 type M 54, Fish table amphora, Opaiț, Ionescu 2016 type 3 etc.
The second Roman-Byzantine group of amphorae is characterized by the presence of types of amphorae, well known for this chronological segment, such as LRA1, LRA2, LRA4 and North African – Keay XXV, Spatheia etc.
In terms of percentage and with a focus on the production areas, amphorae made in the Oriental part of the Empire is clearly predominat, followed by those produced in the Pontic region, in order to hierarchically place the containers from the North African area, with the lowest presence. The main products transported are wine, oil and fish products (in small quantities), mainly from the northern Black Sea.
Their presence in the center of Halmyris confirms, on the one hand, the importance of the fortress during the 2nd-6th centuries AD, but on the other hand the commercial connections maintained by the province through the fortress of Murighiol, with the other parts of the Empire.