Chian and Mainland North-Ionian Archaic East Greek Transport Amphoras. Case Study of the Orgame Herôon Specimens
Pierre Dupont, Vasilica Lungu
Discovered in 1995 in Sector II of the Orgame necropolis, among the finds of the « Herôon », two representative specimens of transport jars, well-dated around 630 BC or so by an associated Ionian cup of Villard A2 type, were submitted to X-ray fluorescence measurements by the Lyon Lab. The data processing of their chemical results have led to a reassessment of their attribution of origin.
Primarily classified as Chian, current typological attribution at that time for such shapes, these two specimens shortly after proved to be closer to the newly characterized Clazomenian type, an identification closely fitting with the amphora pattern of finds of Clazomenae. Lastly, Lyon lab results have evidenced that only one part of these transport jars of Clazomenian type were produced there, whereas the remaining part appeared ascribable to another seemingly nearby located North-Ionian area rather than centre of manufacture and that it was the case for the two early archaic specimens brought to light from the Orgame Herôon.
In addition to the results obtained on samples from Black Sea settlements (Orgame, Istros, Berezan, Olbia), particularly informative appeared those illustrated by the range of complete shapes from the earliest Clazomenian necropolis of Abdera, which not only validate the partition between jars of Chian and Clazomenian types, but also put forward a double origin for the latter, splitting into original Clazomenian products and those from another mainland North-Ionian centre of manufacture, the chemical pattern of which preliminary lab results would rather point to nearby Erythrae than to Teos. Such a diversification of wine imports from the same area might well correspond to a hierarchical distinction between expensive vintage wines from Clazomenae and indifferent cheap ones for everyday consumption; this would explain the higher proportion of the latter as evidenced among our representative set of samples.